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Écosystèmes et services écosystémiques

Écosystème urbain

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publié le 13 février 2018

The state and use of municipal tree inventories in Swedish municipalities – results from a national survey / Johan Östberg, Björn Wiström, Thomas B. Randrup
Urban Ecosyst, article en ligne le 8 février 2018, pp. 1-11
"Urban trees are an essential component of urban ecosystems, and management of this resource constitutes an essential element of urban open space management. However, municipal tree inventories in Sweden and elsewhere have received limited attention. It is unknown how common municipal tree inventories are in Sweden, factors governing whether a municipality has an inventory and what the inventories are used for. This study therefore sought to : Create an overview of the state of Swedish municipal tree inventories and determine how municipality size, green space budget and management organisation affect the presence and scope of municipal tree inventories." [site visité le 13/02/2018]

Les espaces verts urbains : éclairages sur les services écosystémiques culturels (dossier)
Environnement Urbain / Urban Environment, vol.11, mis en ligne le 27 juillet 2017
"Ce numéro thématique s’appuie sur le programme de recherche SERVEUR (Services écosystémiques des espaces verts urbains 2013-2016), financé par la Région Centre Val de Loire en France et centré sur les services rendus par les écosystèmes. Cette notion est récente. Cependant, on a conscience depuis assez longtemps que la nature procure de nombreux bienfaits aux groupes humains..."[site visité le 28/05/2017]

Does the Ecosystem Service Concept Reach its Limits in Urban Environments ? Simone A. Beichler, Olaf Bastian, Dagmar Haase, Stefan Heiland, Nadja Kabisch, Felix Müller
Landscape online, 51:1-21, 2017, 21 p.
"There is a rapidly growing body of literature on the theory about the ecosystem service concept and the practical assessment of ecosystem services in different contexts ranging from natural to urban environments. Yet, where does the concept reach its limits? This paper critically reflects the application of the ecosystem service concept in urban environments illustrating the handling of urban structures (incl. built-up areas) and the risk that the normative principle of the concept could be missed. It is shown that in theory urban structures refer to a variety of ecosystem concepts. As a starting point for ecosystem service assessments, these could be classified into natural, managed, constructed and overbuilt systems. Since ecosystem service concepts do not directly refer to a specific ecosystem definition, but to biophysical structures and processes, all of these classes could be included. However, the dependency on context and scale makes a differentiation in practical ecosystem services assessment challenging. We conclude that the ecosystem service concept does not reach its limits in urban environments, but urban environments represent an extreme case characterized by multifunctionality and a high degree of modification that enables to uncover research challenges applying in any environment." [site visité le 30/06/2017]

Analyzing ecosystem services and green urban infrastructures to support urban planning/ Zardo Linda
PhD thesis, University of Trento, 2017, 118 p., publiée le 18 mai 2017
"The goal of this work is to contribute to mainstream ES knowledge into practice. Towards the achievement of this goal, it is crucial to understand the extent to which the ES concept is currently included in urban planning, and to identify the type of information that can most effectively support decision-makers and planners in adopting ES knowledge, and specifically Ecosystem-based measures in their “everyday” urban planning. The work is organized in four specific objectives : i) to provide an overview of the current state of the art related to inclusion of Ecosystem-based measures in urban planning and discuss, and use it identify and discuss the main shortcoming and propose possible solutions. ii)0 to develop an approach to estimate the cooling capacity provided by Green Urban Infrastructures to support urban planning. iii) to test the application of ES assessments in two case studies. iv) to develop guidance to support equitable distribution of ES in cities. The ES concept represents a tool to understand the underlying links between ecosystems, benefits provided and human wellbeing : if effectively used and mainstreamed in the planning practice, can be one of the keys for more livable and equitable cities." [site visité le 26/05/2017]

Combining the Conservation of Biodiversity with the Provision of Ecosystem Services in Urban Green Infrastructure Planning : Critical Features Arising from a Case Study in the Metropolitan Area of Rome / Giulia Capotorti, Eva Del Vico, Ilaria Anzellotti, Laura Celesti-Grapow
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 10
"A large number of green infrastructure (GI) projects have recently been proposed, planned and implemented in European cities following the adoption of the GI strategy by the EU Commission in 2013. Although this policy tool is closely related to biodiversity conservation targets, some doubts have arisen as regards the ability of current urban GI to provide beneficial effects not only for human societies but also for the ecological systems that host them. The aim of this work is to review the features that should be considered critical when searching for solutions that simultaneously support biodiversity and guarantee the provision of ecosystem services (ES) in urban areas. Starting from a case study in the metropolitan area of Rome, we highlight the role of urban trees and forests as proxies for overall biodiversity and as main ecosystem service providers. We look beyond the individual functional features of plant species and vegetation communities to promote the biogeographic representativity, ecological coherence and landscape connectivity of new or restored GI elements." [site visité le 31/12/2016]

Visions for Urban Landscape Sustainability, Past, Present and Future / Dina Salem
European Journal of Sustainable Development, vol.5, n°3, pp. 419-432
"Sustainable landscape is widely understood as a key contributor to urban sustainability for the fact that all landscapes has a social, economic, cultural and ecological function for the community‘s well-being and quality of life. This paper briefly reviews the concepts of landscape planning and its role in creating urban quality even before sustainability oriented developments ; Sustainable development and the changes in its interpretation as well as visions for landscape sustainability are demonstrated, defined and classified. Challenges facing sustainable landscape planning are discussed. Finally, the paper discusses how our future urban open spaces could be sustainable and how does this contribute to urban sustainability pillars." [site visité le 14/10/2016]

Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research / Peleg Kremer, Zoé Hamstead, Dagmar Haase
Ecology and Society 21(2):29, 2016
"Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES) research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues." [site visité le 27/05/2016]

The role of ecological wisdom in managing for sustainable interdependent urban and natural ecosystems / Duncan T. Patten
Landscape and Urban Planning, Available online 13 May 2016
"This conceptual paper has two goals. First it reviews aspects of sustainability and resilience and their relationship to management of coupled, interdependent urban and natural ecosystems where the natural ecosystem supplies goods and services to help maintain urban sustainability. Second, it explores whether urban ecosystems and natural ecosystems that help sustain the urban ecosystem can both be sustainable, and whether ecological wisdom could be an overarching tool guiding how these two systems are managed to maintain sustainability of both. In doing this, the concept of ecological wisdom is expanded from a philosophical context to a practical context applicable to 21st century ecosystem management. Using several cases of interrelationships between urban and natural ecosystems, ecological wisdom is conceptually shown to be a preferred management process. The cases also demonstrate that, regardless of management approaches to create sustainable functioning riverine ecosystems modified to supply clean water as goods and services to urban areas for urban sustainability ; it is unlikely that these riverine ecosystems will ever be fully functional. As a comprehensive management approach, ecological wisdom conceptually may come closest to creating both sustainable urban ecosystems and sustainable functional riverine ecosystems." [site visité le 20/05/2016]

Exploring local consequences of two land-use alternatives for the supply of urban ecosystem services in Stockholm year 2050 / Jaan-Henrik Kaina, Neele Larondelleb, Dagmar Haaseb, Anna Kaczorowskaa
Ecological Indicators, available online 5 April 2016
"Ecosystem services (ESs) are gaining ground in urban policy as a key to attaining sustainable cities. However, strategic and land-use planners need operational and accessible tools to better understand the consequences of policy and planning measures. Based on a study of the City of Stockholm and its surrounding region, we argue that spatially explicit land-use mapping is a good base for modeling and visualizing the supply of urban ESs provided by different patterns of Service Providing Units. By adding more detailed characteristics of land use through the concept of Service Providing Elements (SPEs), and by assessing synergies and trade-offs between these attributes, implications for the supply of ESs at different scale levels could be identified and discussed. Detailed land-use mapping and ES modeling were applied to two future land-use alternatives." [site visité le 15/04/2016]

Novel Urban Ecosystems : Concepts, Definitions and a Strategy to Support Urban Sustainability and Resilience / Jack F. Ahern
University of Massachusetts - Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst - Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty, 2016, 7 p.
"The 21st century is already known for unprecedented and fundamental changes and new trajectories - think climate change, global economics, migration and population growth. The world is now predominantly urban and will become increasingly so until mid-century when global population is expected to stabilize at around 70% urban. The world has entered a new geological era, the Anthropocene, in which the impacts and artifacts of humans are recognized as a geologic force. In this "Century of the City, - for the world to be sustainable and resilient, cities must be an essential part of the solution - and novel urban ecosystems will play a fundamental role. A new conception, definition, and typology of 21st century ""novel" urban nature is proposed here as the basis for a novel urban ecosystem strategy to provide essential ecosystem services to support urban sustainability and resilience. This proposed novel nature strategy is informed by landscape and urban ecology and collaborates systematically in "designed experiments" with urban landscape architecture practice. Designed experiments on novel urban ecosystem are necessary to : 1 I monitor the performance of innovative designs to provide essential ecosystem services ; 2] to mitigate the inescapable ecosystem disservices ; and 3) to build public understanding and support for new types and new models of novel urban ecosystems." [site visité le 16/03/2016]

Évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques. MEDDE, 27 janvier 2016
"Pilotée par le ministère, l’évaluation française des écosystèmes et des services écosystémiques (Efese) regroupe un ensemble d’évaluations en vue d’améliorer le pilotage des politiques de protection et d’utilisation de la biodiversité et leur intégration dans les politiques sectorielles (santé, logement, sécurité...). Le séminaire annuel de l’Efese offre à chaque fin d’année l’occasion de faire un point sur les avancées du programme et de discuter de ses orientations auprès d’un large public." [site visité le 05/02/2016]
Consulter les supports des interventions "Évaluation économique des services écosystémiques des espaces verts urbains : des valeurs contrastées - Présentation de Nadine Polombo et Jean-Louis Yengué" et "Services écosystémiques et scénarios de planification territoriale à l’échelle de la Communauté urbaine de Bordeaux - Présentation de Clément Féger"

Ecosystem services in municipal spatial planning. Progress Report
Delshammar Tim, Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Horticulture and Crop Production Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 27 octobre 2015
"The Swedish government decided in 2012 that the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services should be integrated in planning and other decision processes latest in 2018. However, it is not self-evident how to implement the importance of biodiversity and the value of ecosystem services in spatial planning practice. The aim of this report is to explore how far Swedish municipalities have progressed regarding the integration of ecosystem services in urban spatial planning and what can be learnt from the efforts so far. The data for this progress re-port was gathered by means of a telephone survey. The results show that the integration of ecosystem services is in an early stage in Swedish planning practice. However, the lack of practical experiences makes many planners hesitant to get started. The overall picture is that most planners seem to regard it as a technical issue that can be solved by experts and assessment/ planning tools. For future spatial planning practice it is recommended that value of ecosystem services should be negotiated instead of assessed by experts." [site visité le 05/11/2015]

The role of community-led innovation in the adaptive capacity of ecosystem services in an urban social-ecological system
DENNIS Matthew
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, School of Environment and Life Sciences, College of Science and Technology, University of Salford (UK), June 2015, 336 p.
"Urban areas are hubs of creativity and innovation providing fertile ground for novel responses to modern environmental challenges. One such response is the community-led management of urban green spaces as a form of organised social-ecological innovation (OSEI). Previous studies have attempted to conceptualise the ecological, social and political potential of such informal approaches to urban green space management. However, little work has been carried out into their efficacy in the landscape, either by describing the social- ecological conditions influencing their occurrence or by quantifying the actual benefits in terms of ecosystem service provision. This research explores the emergence and impact of OSEI in a continuous urban landscape comprising the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Salford and Trafford (UK). The social-ecological context and content of OSEI were investigated using a cross-scale approach. At the landscape scale a snowball-sampling method mapped the occurrence of OSEIs using GIS and remote sensing technology. At the micro-scale, a case study quantified relative levels of provision across four key ecosystem services."

The New Global Urban Realm : Complex, Connected, Diffuse, and Diverse Social-Ecological Systems
MCHALE Melissa R., PICKETT Steward T.A., BARBOSA Olga, et al.
Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 5211-5240
"Urbanization continues to be a transformative process globally, affecting ecosystem integrity and the health and well being of people around the world. Although cities tend to be centers for both the production and consumption of goods and services that degrade natural environments, there is also evidence that urban ecosystems can play a positive role in sustainability efforts. Despite the fact that most of the urbanization is now occurring in the developing countries of the Global South, much of what we know about urban ecosystems has been developed from studying cities in the United States and across Europe. We propose a conceptual framework to broaden the development of urban ecological research and its application to sustainability. Our framework describes four key contemporary urban features that should be accounted for in any attempt to build a unified theory of cities that contributes to urban sustainability efforts. We evaluated a range of examples from cities around the world, highlighting how urban areas are complex, connected, diffuse and diverse and what these interconnected features mean for the study of urban ecosystems and sustainability." [site visité le 05/05/2015]

Comment et pourquoi préserver et valoriser le patrimoine naturel et la diversité des espèces végétales et animales au cœur des villes?. DDTM de l’Hérault, 3 mars 2015
"Pour répondre à ces questions, à travers plusieurs exemples concrets sur différentes échelles de territoire, la DDTM 34 a réalisé une plaquette d’information : "Les continuités écologiques urbaines, pour vivre la ville en vert et bleu". Ce document s’adresse principalement aux élus locaux désireux de s’engager dans la protection et la valorisation de la biodiversité locale, par la mise en place de continuités écologiques sur leur territoire, afin de maintenir une biodiversité ordinaire jusqu’au cœur de la ville." [site visité le 12/03/2015]

Land-use change and ecosystem service modeling under conditions of growth and shrinkage : the case of Berlin
LAUF Steffen
Thèse de doctorat, Technische Universität Berlin, Fakultät VI - Planen Bauen Umwelt, août 2041, 246 p.
"Today’s political decision makers are challenged to tackle the complex interactions between human activities and the natural environment within the context of limited environmental and human resilience. This becomes especially important in urban regions, where environmental effects are particularly evident, as indicated for instance by a continuous global decline of ecosystem services (ES) due to the increase of urban areas. Future decision-making can only be effectively promoted if the multiple cause-effect relationships driving urban and ES change are understood. For this purpose, a systemic approach seems promising and was chosen in this dissertation thesis. The aim of this thesis is to provide a combined model approach that is able to reveal the currently observed urban processes and dynamics which characterize the complex urban system. To this end, a demographically-driven residential demand and supply model is linked to a spatially explicit land-use change (LUC) model." [site visité le 27/02/2015]

Ecosystem services in practice : well-being and vulnerability of two european urban areas
PhD Thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, January 2015, 231 p.
"The large majority of the population in Europe lives in cities and the improvement of the quality of life in urban areas is a policy objective of primary importance. Cities are typically affected by crowding, traffic, air and noise pollution and present features that make them more vulnerable to natural hazards. This Thesis explains how ecosystem services help improve the livability of cities, with a focus on European medium-sized urban areas, using empirical, integrated (e.g. qualitative and quantitative or social-ecological) and policy relevant studies. It explores how and why urban areas can benefit, in terms of well-being and reduction of vulnerability to hazards, from a broader range of policies when ecological aspects are properly accounted for at different geographical scales." [site visité le 20 février 2015]

The uptake of the ecosystem services concept in planning discourses of European and American cities
Ecosystem Services, préprint en ligne le 6 janvier 2015
"Ecosystem services (ES) are gaining increasing attention as a promising concept to more actively consider and plan for the varied benefits of the urban environment. Yet, to have an impact on decision-making, the concept must spread from academia to practice. To understand how ES have been taken up in planning discourses we conducted a cross-case comparison of planning documents in Berlin, New York, Salzburg, Seattle and Stockholm." [site visité le 8/01/2015]

Nature in the metropolis : Mapping biodiversity using metropolitan landscape characterization tools.
In : Proceedings of the ECLAS conference : Landscape, a place of cultivation, Porto (Portugal) 21-23 Sept. 2014 (publié le 31/12/2014)
"Cities can be planned and designed to reduce their effect on biodiversity loss and may even be able to sustain biodiversity levels in some instances, due to ‘beta-diversity’. The heterogeneity of metropolitan regions can be expected to have a strong impact on beta-diversity. Tools such as landscape characterization can assist in the understanding of betadiversity in metropolitan regions by mapping the extent and configuration of beta-diversity conditions, in particular microhabitats and habitat mosaic configurations. A new tool for landscape characterization of metropolitan areas (MLC) trialled on the Rotterdam metropolitan region generated thirty-six distinctive landscape types - twelve continuous and twentyfour discontinuous (hybrid) types." [site visité le 12 janvier 2015]

Integrating ecosystem services in landscape planning : requirements, approaches, and impacts
ALBERT Christian, ARONSON James, FÜRST Christine, OPDAM Paul
Landscape Ecology, October 2014, Vol.29, Issue 8, pp. 1277-1285
"Despite growing knowledge of ecosystem services (ES), and heightened awareness of their political and socio-economic relevance, mainstreaming and implementing ES in landscape planning and decision-making are still in their infancy. The objective of this special issue, therefore, is to explore requirements for, approaches to, and potential impacts of, integrating ES in landscape planning and management. The issue includes three key research themes : (i) Requirements and interests of planners and decision-makers for integrating ES in different application contexts, (ii) Approaches to applying ES in (participatory) planning, and (iii) Potential impacts of integrating ES in policy and decision-making."

Conserving the Value of Ecosystem Services in Suburban Residential Development. Case : Trondheim, Norway
LEE Heather Kristen
Master in Industrial Ecology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, juin 2014
"This study attempts to identify the values that Trondheim homebuyers place on having natural areas of forest and freshwater near their homes. These values are then examined through the cultural ecosystem services they attain from the natural spaces. By considering this information while examining the policies related to ecosystems and residential development in Trondheim, the study is able to propose new policies or regulations for the city’s future planning initiatives."

Ecosystem Services and Urban Resilience – Case of Stockholm.
2014 ISOCARP International Planning Congress, 23-26 September 2014, Gdynia, Poland, pp. 1-9. [Conference paper - non peer reviewed]
"In the current context of urban densification and climate change the role of adaptive management of space in cities becomes crucial. This has significant consequences for the resilience of urban environments and our understanding and framing the role of open space and vegetation in cities. Urban ecosystem services (ES) are currently promoted in Sweden in the planning for more dense and sustainable cities. Despite the vital importance of ES, the methodology for planning of ES has not been developed. Of particular concern to scientists, environmentalists and planners are tools and methods addressing ES in urban planning and construction in Stockholm. Thus, the findings are particularly interesting as Stockholm city and region are often used as the best practice examples in the literature on the management of ES. This article identifies some of the challenges and opportunities involved in the process of integrating the concept of ES into planning for urban resilience in Stockholm." [site visité le 1 septembre 2014]

The Most Important Current Research Questions in Urban Ecosystem Services. 19 août 2014. Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum (Forthcoming)
SALZMAN James and Arnold, CRAIG Anthony, GARCIA Robert HIROKAWA Keith H., JOWERS, LEJAVA Jeffrey, OLANDER Lydia P.
"We tend to take nature’s ecological systems – or ecosystems – for granted, but they provide critically valuable services to society and to urban areas. They create a sense of place and recreational opportunities, contributing to quality of life by enhancing human physical and psychological health. This is particularly true for cities, where economic productivity, fiscal soundness, community life, and governance are tied to natural surroundings in distinct, unique and generally under-appreciated ways. Because the urbanized world depends on ecosystem services – both inside and outside of city boundaries – investing in the provision of ecosystem services will often be more cost-effective than response actions, such as treatment, restoration, and disaster response. Given the importance of urban ecosystem benefits to surrounding populations, we might expect that ecosystem services would play a prominent role in the formulation of urban policies, plans, and laws. However, with rare exception, they do not. Many cities are experiencing declines of the ecosystems that sustain them. Metropolitan areas are losing open space, farmland, and environmentally sensitive lands. As America, and indeed the rest of the world, becomes increasingly urbanized, these issues are of the first importance in seeking to improve quality of life. The scholarship in the area, though, has been fragmented by discipline. Much remains to be done. First and foremost, we must identify the pressing research needs. This article brings together the collective insights of scholars and practitioners from a wide range of disciplines – lawyers and urban planners to ecologists and economists. Taking a comprehensive and wide-ranging view of the field, we identify the most important research questions that should shape the future of scholarship on urban ecosystem services. In doing so, we seek to help shape the trajectory of research across multiple disciplines in this growing and critical area." [site visité le 1 septembre 2014]

Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere : Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services
Ambio, vol.43, n°4, may 2014, pp. 445-453 (open access)
"Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social–ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social–ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social–ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure." [site visité le 21 juillet 2014]

De la gestion des villes à la conception d’écosystèmes urbains durables
In : MASCHINO L., SCOUARNEC A. (coords.). Les Métiers de la ville de demain (à paraître), 2014
"Dans ce chapitre nous soulignons l’évolution scientifique et culturelle nécessaire pour concevoir des écosystèmes urbains durables. Scientifique en intégrant les apports de l’architecture de systèmes complexes, culturelle par l’évolution de la décision et de l’organisation publique que cela suppose." [site visité le 12 juin 2014]

Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy
Francesco Martinico, Daniele La Rosa, Riccardo Privitera
iForest, online 2014-05-19, doi : 10.3832/ifor1171-007
"In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD) that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy)." [site visité le 28 mai 2014]

Panorama des services écologiques fournis par les milieux naturels en France. Vol. 2.3 : Les écosystèmes urbains
Comité français de l’UICN, février 2014, 18 p.
"Le maintien et la valorisation des services écologiques fournis par les écosystèmes urbains représentent un enjeu important pour l’aménagement des villes. L’urbanisation et l’artificialisation du territoire ont conduit à une diminution et une dégradation des milieux naturels. Le retour de la nature en ville permet de mieux comprendre et valoriser les multiples bénéfices fournis par les écosystèmes urbains : régulation climatique, régulation de la qualité de l’eau, de l’air et des sols, pollinisation, services culturels... Ces derniers sont particulièrement importants car ils contribuent au bien-être des citadins et participent à l’amélioration de leur qualité de vie (extrait)." [site visité le 3 avril 2014]

A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Myla F. J. Aronson, et al.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B - Biological Sciences, 12 February 2014, doi 10.1098/rspb.2013.3330
"This article is a comparative study of biodiversity in cities. The researchers compiled the largest global dataset to date of two diverse taxa in cities : birds (54 cities) and plants (110 cities) [...]. Despite declines in the density of species, cities still retain endemic native species, thus providing opportunities for regional and global biodiversity conservation, restoration and education." [site visité le 17 février 2014]

Allemagne. Soutien ministériel pour la biodiversité en milieu urbain. ADIT, BE Allemagne 646, 12 février 2014
"La nouvelle ministre fédéral de l’Environnement, Barbara Hendricks, a encouragé l’engagement des citadins en faveur de la biodiversité. Elle incite les citoyens à participer au concours national "Entente Florale"." [site visité le 13 février 2014]

Linking biodiversity and recreational merits of urban green spaces.
Qui, Ling. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 2014
"Urban green spaces play an important role in promoting both biodiversity and human recreation. This thesis therefore attempted to link biodiversity and recreational values of urban green spaces through an interdisciplinary research of trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity conservation and human recreation." [site visité le 14 février 2014]

Urban habitats as a refuge for biodiversity : A case study in Greece
Science for environment policy, Commission européenne-DG Environnement, News Alert Service issue 360 du 6 février 2014 [site visité le 06 février 2014]
« Cities located in biodiversity hotspots can provide valuable refuges for a wide range of plants, a recent study suggests. Of the 379 plant species and sub-species recorded in the city of Ioannina, Greece, 27 were of conservation interest. Town planners can ensure that cities play an important role in supporting regional biodiversity when designing future urban developments, the researchers say. »

Les villes, nouveaux bassins de la biodiversité. Pieuvre.ca, 25 janvier 2014
"Le terme biodiversité éveille normalement des images de vastes horizons, de coins du monde préservés contre le développement urbain ou industriel, de grandes forêts ou de plaines vierges de traces du passage de l’homme. Des études révèlent cependant que les villes peuvent en fait favoriser la biodiversité, et cette constatation pourrait avoir d’importants impacts sur les efforts de conservation de la nature." [site visité le 27 janvier 2014]

Biodiversité urbaine : mieux la connaître pour mieux la protéger. COTE Charles. LaPresse.ca, 22 octobre 2013.
Un rapport, intitulé Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, commandé par le secrétariat de la Convention sur la diversité biologique, souligne l’importance de conserver des milieux naturels et des écosystèmes fonctionnels à proximité des villes.

La nature plus précieuse et utile que jamais. RHADDAD Yaël. Paysages actualités, n°364, novembre 2013.
Afin de préserver la biodiversité urbaine, de nombreux projets associent chercheurs, collectivités territoriales et citoyens.

15 propositions pour changer les pratiques de construction et d’aménagement en faveur de la biodiversité. Natureparif [site visité le 1er octobre 2013]

Eco-Atlas urbain : replacer la biodiversité au coeur de la vie urbaine. Synergiz [site visité le 1er octobre 2013]

Écosystèmes et territoires urbains : impossible conciliation ? Anna Balez et Juliette Reunkrilerk. Développement durable et territoires, vol.4, n°2, juillet 2013
"Face à l’augmentation de la population urbaine et les pressions exercées sur la biodiversité, il est important d’apporter de nouvelles réponses émanant de nouvelles façons de concevoir le territoire. Le concept grandissant de services rendus par les écosystèmes offre un nouveau prisme d’analyse vis-à-vis des territoires et de leur aménagement. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les liens qui existent entre les milieux urbains, les services écosystémiques et la santé humaine. À travers l’évolution des méthodes de monétarisation, nous nous interrogeons sur leur pertinence quant à l’aide à la prise de décision pour la planification urbaine." [site visité le 5 août 2013]

Biodiversité : les services écosystémiques et la nature en ville. RAYMOND, Richard ; SIMON, Laurent. La revue forestière française, n°3, 2012

La ville, nouvel écosystème du XXIe siècle. Ville, réseaux, développement durable. Rapport 2011-2012 du Comité de prospective de Comité 21. Mars 2012
..."Partant de multiples travaux de prospective sur les villes françaises et européennes, croisant les approches économiques, architecturales, urbanistes et biologiques, il (le Comité de prospective) propose une réflexion originale autour de la ville comme écosystème. A quelles conditions l’écosystème urbain pourra t-il réguler l’évolution des rapports entre ville et nature ? Et réguler la densité ? Quelle place tiendra la cyberville dans l’écosystème urbain ? A quelles conditions l’écosystème urbain pourra t-il réduire les éco-inégalités ? De quelle culture urbaine la ville écosystème sera-t-elle porteuse ?"
CDU 10-AD01 - 70891
Voir aussi l’interview vidéo de Bettina Laville, auteure du rapport

RAYMOND Richard, SIMON Laurent
Biodiversité : les services écosystémiques et la nature en ville
Revue forestière française, n°3/2012, pp. 339-350
"Il est malheureusement fréquent d’opposer nature et ville. Cette opposition trop rapide brouille la connaissance des conditions nécessaires à la conservation de la biodiversité dans les milieux anthropisés. L’objectif de ce texte est donc de dépasser l’opposition simpliste ville/nature pour remettre en lumière la complexité des relations que l’urbain entretient avec la nature. Nous montrerons d’abord que ville et nature forment deux systèmes étroitement imbriqués et ce, depuis l’origine des villes. Puis nous distinguerons deux manières différentes de considérer la nature en ville : celle assimilant les objets de nature à des éléments de mobilier urbain ; celle appréhendant la nature sous l’angle de la biodiversité. La gestion de cette biodiversité pose trois questions importantes que nous aborderons en guise de conclusion."

The social production of ecosystem services : A framework for studying environmental justice and ecological complexity in urbanized landscapes
Landscape and Urban Planning, vol. 109, n°1, January 2013, pp. 7–17. Special Issue : Urban Ecosystem Services
"Highlights : Two levels of analysis are interlinked to study justice and ecosystem services. ► Urbanized landscapes are modeled as social–ecological networks at the city-level. ► Social practices of value articulation are studied in local struggles over land-use. ► Ecological connectivity brings in crucial dimensions of complexity in studying justice. ► Combining methods and levels of analysis brings increased understanding in empirical work."

WILLET, Bastien
D’hier à demain, la place de la nature dans l’écosystème urbain. Quelles approches pour une ‘nature’ en ville ?
Aix-en-Provence : Institut d’Urbanisme et d’Aménagement Régional, oct. 2011.- 126 p., phot., bibliogr.
La première partie de ce mémoire consiste en une relecture orientée de l’histoire de la nature en ville. A l’orée du XXe siècle, l’analyse réalisée par l’auteur fait apparaître les notions naissantes d’écologie urbaine et de développement durable pour lier enjeux passés de la ville aux préoccupations contemporaines. La deuxième partie pose la question du bien-fondé de la ‘réelle nature’ dans l’écosystème urbain actuel, et enquête sur des différents vecteurs d’expression actuels. Car si les politiques n’hésitent pas à s’engager, sur la forme, pour une imbrication écologique entre ville et nature, qu’en est-il des réalisations ? L’échelle d’étude est celle du projet et du design urbain, et ce sont des enjeux davantage écologiques, urbanistiques et humains qu’architecturaux et paysagers qui sont étudiés. Enfin, la troisième partie va transposer les premières réponses dans le champ du futur et des possibles. Elle est consacrée à la remise en question de la quête très contemporaine en faveur d’une symbiotique homme-nature en milieu urbain, pour clore une réflexion qui relie le goût de l’auteur pour l’urbanisme associé à des engagements environnementaux.
CTA 17255
(Nous n’avons pas ce document au CRDALN, mais pouvons l’emprunter si nécessaire)

GALLARDO, Jean-Philippe ; SUDRIE, Catherine (dir.)
Ecologie (L’) urbaine au service d’une gestion urbaine durable : approche éco-systémique et intégration de l’environnement
Pessac : IATU, 2008.- 176 p., ill., bibliogr., +1 cédérom
Les enjeux environnementaux sont de plus en plus prégnants dans les milieux urbains : aux préoccupations de cadre de vie, de gestion de l’eau et des déchets, de prise en compte de la qualité de l’air et des nuisances sonores, s’ajoutent aujourd’hui une lutte contre le réchauffement climatique par la recherche de l’efficacité énergétique, le développement des énergies renouvelables, et le développement des déplacements « doux ». Le paradigme du développement durable met en perspective ces enjeux. D’une part ce mode de développement intègre ces derniers dans le triptyque économie-social-environnement, en insistant sur les processus de prise de décision ; d’autre part, le mouvement international qui a mené à l’émergence du développement durable a directement associé les gouvernements locaux, dont les villes, dans les engagements qui ont été pris. Pourtant les questions environnementales ne sont que partiellement intégrées dans les processus de gestion de la ville, et de gouvernance urbaine. Or cette intégration s’avère nécessaire pour parvenir à une ville viable, vivable et équitable. L’approche écosystémique issue de l’écologie urbaine s’avère être un prisme constructif pour parvenir à cette intégration. Celle-ci permet d’évaluer et de suivre les évolutions de l’environnement urbain, de détecter et de mettre en œuvre des moyens de réduire le métabolisme territorial, et surtout de clarifier les différents processus qui s’opèrent dans la ville (décisionnels, organisationnels, etc.) en modélisant les rapports entre les acteurs et les différentes sphères du système. Cette approche éco-systémique tend à faire émerger des nouveaux modes de gouvernance de ville inspirés des systèmes de management environnemental, qui permettent une intégration complète de l’environnement.
(Nous n’avons pas ce document au CRDALN, mais pouvons l’emprunter si nécessaire)

Nature (La) dans la ville : biodiversité et urbanisme
Journal Officiel. Avis et rapports du Conseil Economique et Social. No 24, 3 déc. 2007.- 172 p., cartes, fig., tabl., graph., bibliogr.
Après avoir dressé un bilan sur l’évolution de la place de la nature dans la société, le cadre normatif actuel en matière de droit de l’urbanisme et de biodiversité et les politiques de nature dans la ville régionales et locales, des exemples de réalisations à différentes échelles territoriales sont présentés. L’évolution de l’urbanisme et de l’architecture en relation avec la nature est abordée ce qui permet de confronter la vision actuelle des urbanistes et des naturalistes aux représentations et attentes des citadins sans oublier la question des nuisances biologiques et du risque sanitaire associé. Quatre points qui posent des problèmes spécifiques et représentent des enjeux majeurs sont détaillés : la densité du bâti, les services rendus par la nature, le financement des programmes, la formation et la communication par la thématique de la biodiversité et de l’urbanisme. Quelques pistes de réflexion sont proposées.
CDU CD100244 ; CDU 10-AD05 - 62508 ; CDU 62508